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PCB Board Making Plant

 

 

1.     Introduction

     PCB is ambiguous to many people. Every body knows, whether it be home appliances, mobile phone or computer there are a board with the plug-in of integrated circuit which are the so called Printed Circuit Board.
     PCB literally means the products are made by pattern printing technology. PCB replaces conventional copper wiring methodology and enables mass production process to duplicate the products. Therefore, increasing the throughput and the mobility, also reducing the size and cost.
     In the early days, PCB makers apply casting technology to create patterns on insulating plates. After 1936, using resist-ink to define the pattern area then followed by etching process were applied. This technology is so called “subtractive method” or “print and etch”.
     In the 60’s phonographs / Tape Recorder / VCRs on the market started use of double side PCBs with plated through-hole technology. Epoxy with stable thermal resistance and dimension characteristics were then used as the major resin material for PCB manufacturing and are still in major use today.
     PCB industry in Taiwan is of world wide influence, especially in the production quantity, high efficiency, wide variety, and also lowest in cost.
     This particular kind of industry required the country’s national spirit and characteristics plus diligence and concentrated effort of investment together with the active reactions from entrepreneur to work toward good achievements. This proposal introduce for the four ply PCB manufacturing process and operational technique for reference.

 

2.     Process Description

2.1.   Flow Chart:

Issue Materials

Inner Layer

Black Oxide

MLB Lam

Drilling

Desemar

Deburr

Eless Cu(PTH)

Dry Film

Etching

Solder Resist

Hot Air Levering

Legend Print

Routing

Trimming

V-Cut

Clean

QC/Bake/Pack

Final Products

 

 

 

2.2.    Process Description

2.2.1.     Issue Material:
     The purpose of this process is to cut the sheet size of copper clad laminate to working size for production.

2.2.2.     Inner Layer:
     Makers apply image transfer as the solution. Using plotted artwork film and UV exposure machines to transfer the pattern image from artwork to boards. Then use a developing process to remove the film from the non-expose area, there you have your pattern.

2.2.3.     Black Oxide (Surface Roughing):
     The most popular roughening process used in the PCB industry is “Black Oxide”. The process uses chemical solution to generate an oxidation layer on the surface or etch out some for anchoring. Base on the topography, the bonding strength can be improved.

2.2.4.     MLB Lam (Lamination Lay-up):
     After oxide treating, inner layer boards will be stacked as designed. While stacking, makers will fill in plastic sheet as the bonder. The plastic sheet so called “prepreg” are kind of semi cured glass clad carry sheet. Riveting inner layers together is also called “Booking”. After booking, operators will lay copper foil / prepreg and add separation sheet into a carrier. This whole process is so called “Lay up”.

2.2.5.     Drilling:
     Use mechanical drilling machine for drilling process to create thru holes to achieve connection between layers.

2.2.6.     Desmear:
     After drilling the surface and inner holes are washed with water to clean up other impurities.

2.2.7.     Deburr:
     After drilling and desmear process must be used grinding brusher to drag out all chip waste around the edge of holes.

2.2.8.     Eless CU:
     The purpose of this process is to enabling hole wall to connect conducting metal between layers, this process we also called PTH (Plating Through Hole).

2.2.9.     Dry Film:
     Use low built panel plating process then apply image transfer process and pattern plating as the outer pattern creation processes.

2.2.10.    Etching:
     By etching resist selecting then apply corrosion agent so call “Etching Solution” that non protected copper will be moved away by chemical reaction. Those protected area will leave there.

2.2.11.    Solder Resist:
     The purpose of this process is to define the areas of the board surface that are not for soldering, and then will use some material to protect for preventing damage or oxidation.

2.2.12.    Hot Air Solder Leaving:
     Normal PCB will dip in solder pot then apply hot air and through the air knife to leaving the PCB surface. The same time blow off solder in through hole for future assembly. This process so called “HASL” (Hot Air Solder Leaving).

2.2.13.    Legend Printing:
     For clarify purpose must be printed the manufacturing number or model number on the PCB surface.

2.2.14.    Routing:
     To form PCB in the desired size precisely.

2.2.15.    Trimming:
     Use trimming to polish the edge of PCB in a smooth shape.

2.2.16.    V Cut:
     The purpose for this process is to cut a V line on the PCBs and easily breaking for next stage operation.

2.2.17.    Clean:
     Use water to wash PCB again and keep clean.

2.2.18.    QC / Bake / Packing:
     Inspect the board after to filtrating the defects and scraped boards. Through quality inspection and dry process then packed the final products for delivery. But packing has to guarantee no damage issue while transformation.

 

3.     Plant Description

3.1.   Production Capacity:

     This plant equipped with the machinery and equipment in section 3-4 of this proposal operating 8 hour per day, 25 days per month, should be able to produce 150,000 pcs of PCB per mouth.

3.2.   Raw Materials:

Substrate / Base Material / FCCL Board
Adhesive
Copper foil / Electrical Copper
Etching Solution
Prepreg
Tin / Lead
Other Chemicals 

3.3.   Manpower Require:

Job Classification

Person / Shift

Plant Manager

1

Section Chief

5

Technician

6

Technician

10

Quality Controller

6

Production Controller

6

Supervisor

5

Foreman

12

Operators

180

Total

231

 

3.4.   Machinery and Equipment:

No

Item

Set (Unit)

1

Cutting machine / Splitting machine

Complete with cutting tool and dust collecting device

1

2

Pre-manufacturing system

CAD / CAM Computer

1

3

Dry: Film Laminator

1

4

Inner / Out layer developing equipment

2

5

Automatic etching machine

1

6

Film stripping washing machine

1

7

Black Oxide equipment

1

8

Hot press system

2

9

Cold press system

1

10

Boiler

1

11

Drilling machine (4 Axis)

5

12

Drilling machine (6 Axis)

5

13

Glue scarp clean system

1

14

Grinding brusher

1

15

Hot air solder leaving equipment

1

16

Tin / Lead coating machine

1

17

Printing machine

1

18

Cutting machine

2

19

V-Line cutting machine

1

20

Trimming machine

1

21

Testing equipment

2

22

Dryer

1

23

Packing machine

1

 

3.5.   Electric Required:

600 KW

3.6.   Investment Budget:

About USD 10 Million

3.7.   Land and Plant Site Area:

     The land area for the factory site including sufficient reserves for future expansion, would be 2,000 M2, the required under roof area for the production building is about 1,200 M2. While the warehouse, office, R&D room. Maintenance room take up about 500 M2, the packing area require 200 M2. Other offsite facilities require about 100 M2.

3.8.   Plant Site Planning:

     There is no strict restriction in regard to the location of the plant site, but the plant will operate more successfully if the following conditions exist:
A.  Convenient transportation
B.  Lower humidity
C.  Abundant skilled technicians and non-skilled labor close to an industrial electronics area. 

4.     Suppliers Information

         Company Name: Yung Chang Electronic Material Co., Ltd.
         Add: No.5, Lane 410, Won-So Rd. Guei Shan Shiang, Tao Yuan, Taiwan
         Tel: 886-3-3193302
         Fax: 886-3193113
         E-Mail: ann.shiau@msa.hinet.net

         Company Name: Taiwan Printed Circuit Association (TPCA)
         Add: 2F, No.1069, Jhongjheng Rd., Tao Yuan City, Tao Yuan, Taiwan
         Tel: 886-3-3177272
         Fax: 886-3-3179077
         URL: http://www.tpca.org.tw
         E-Mail: service@tpca.org.tw

 

Sponsored by the Bureau of Foreign Trade (BOFT)   Administered by the Taiwan External Trade Development Council (TAITRA)
333 Keelung Rd., Section 1, 5-7 Fl., Taipei 11003, Taiwan ROC
Tel: +886 (2) 2725-5200     Fax: +886 (2) 2757-6245     E-mail: taitra@taitra.org.tw
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