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Compact Fluorescent Lamp Making Plant


1.   Introduction

     Man has been aware of fluorescence for hundreds of years, but was unable to put it to practical use for lighting until Thomas Edison was granted a patent for the fluorescent lamp in 1907. The fluorescent lamp is an electric lamp consisting of a glass tube, coated on the inside with a fluorescent substance that gives off light when acted upon by electricity. Fluorescent lamps and incandescent lamps are the two major sources of electric light today. However, fluorescent lamps produce 3.5 times as much light per watt, have much longer lives and often cost less than the corresponding models of incandescent lamps. Consequently, fluorescent lamps are commonly used in offices, factories, classrooms, restaurants, and libraries, as well as a number of other public buildings. 
     Typical fluorescent lamps consist of a long glass tube that seals the inner components from atmosphere. These inner components include two electrodes that emit a flow of electrons; mercury vapor, which is the source of ultraviolet radiation; argon gas, which helps in starting the lamp, and of course fluorescent power coating on the inner surface of the tube; and compact energy saving fluorescent lamp contains ballast. 
     Manufactures of light bulbs are constantly trying to lower the costs of production. As a leading manufacturer of fluorescent lamps, Taiwan has played an important role in helping to develop the technology and automated machinery necessary to keep those products costs down. 
     Consequently, the manufacturers in Taiwan can help entrepreneurs by supplying them with the machinery and technology needed to produce more economical and efficient fluorescent light bulbs.

2.   General Process Description
2.1.          Flow Chart

2.2.         Description Process

     The production of fluorescent lamps is done in four stages. Most of the work is done by automatic machinery, so only a minimal number of workers are required. The four stages of production are:

(1)  Mount Making
Three machines are used to make mounts. This machinery can be used to make stems for many types of lamps:
◆     Flare Making Machine:
A specially designed machine with 12 heads located around the edge of turntable flanges tubes of glass into flares. The flare is separated from the glass / tubing by a flame which polishes the surface of the glass as it cuts it.
◆     Stem Making Machine:
Exhaust tubes and lead-in wires from presorted hoppers are, along with the flares, fed into the stem making machine, which automatically forms the stems.
◆     Mounting Machine:
The stems are forwarded to the mounting machine, where oxidized, tungsten wire filaments are attached, thus completing the mount making process.

(2)  Glass Tube Preparation
◆         Glass tubes of the appropriate length are placed in the washing and coating machine. This machine uses hot water and hot air to wash and dry the glass tubes before the inner walls of the tubes are coated with fluorescent powder.
◆         After being coated with fluorescent powder the tubes are automatically unloaded onto a roller conveyor which transports them through an oven and the through a cooling chamber. As the tubes pass through the oven, the fluorescent coating is baked on to the tubes.
◆         As they pass through the cooling chamber, two end-cleaning machines automatically brush the fluorescent coating from the ends of the tubes. The conveyor then transports the tubes to the sealing machine for final assembly.

(3)  Base Preparation
◆       The required portions of the ingredients needed to make the sealing compound are mixed together in a cement-mixing machine.
◆       The sealing compound is then dispensed into the bases of the lamps by an automatic filling machine. The bases are then forwarded to the basing machine for final assembly.

(4)  Assembly
The mounts, glass tubes, and the cement filled bases are then assembled into finished products.


3.   Plant Description

     This plant can produce 2.88 million fluorescent lamps per year. This figure is based on a schedule consisting of 300 eight hours shifts per year.
     CFL-double/triple tube compact energy saving fluorescent lamp manufacturing plant instruction book
     The plant is used for produce triple u type compact energy saving fluorescent lamps. The sealing type of the tube is stem seal type. Delivery time and prices of the plant will be changed according to buyer’s different requests.

3.1.  Capacity
3.1.1.      Range of lamp
shape of lamp triple u type compact energy saving fluorescent lamp
◆       type CFL-2U/3U       fig 3, 4 for your reference
◆       lamp’s long 70-145mm, diameter of tube 12
3.1.2.      Machine speed: index time 1,500pcs/hr (1pc/2.4sec)
3.1.3.      Production process chart: CFL-2U/3U       fig. 2 for your reference
3.1.4.      2-4.Brief machine layout: CFL-2U/3U        fig. 1 for your reference

3.2.         Raw materials
3.2.1.     Outer tube     Materials: Low Sodium Lead free glass tube     Outer diameter: 12.2±0.2mm     Wall thickness: 1.0±0.1mm / 0.8±0.1mm     Length: 1000 mm ~ 1300mm
3.2.2.     Exhaust Tube     Materials: Lead glass (21%Lead contained at least)     Outer diameter: 4.6 mm / 4.1±0.15mm x 75L±0.7     Wall thickness: 0.45±0.1 mm     Length: 75±0.7mm
3.2.3.     Lead in wire     Material: Dumet wire (Cr6)     Diameter: 0.45 mm     Length: 62 mm
3.2.4.     Filament     220V single π(5,7,9,13W)     220V doubleπ(10,13,18,26W)     Type: Triple coil (3 turns)     Structure:
     4-2-1. OAL: 13.0±0.5mm
     4-2-2. LL: 4.5±0.5mm
     4-2-3.CL: 4.0±0.5mm
     4-2-4. CL DIA: 1.5 – 2.0 mm     Turgsten 38um: 4.38 ~ 4.47 mg / 200mm
                 Molybdenum: 60 um 240 um
3.2.5.     Phosphors: Three band phosphors; AT, Y, EU
3.2.6.     Emittor (Oxide): Carbonate suspension
3.2.7.     Cane glass for beads mount m/c:     Materials: Lead glass(21% lead contained at least)     Outer diameter: Ф2~Ф2.5     Length: 1000 mm     Cane glass
3.2.8.     Main Amalgam Ф2.30±0.10 mm
3.2.9.     Sub Amalgam net
3.2.10.     Mercury 99.999%
3.2.11.     Argon GAS 99.999%
3.2.12.     Base cement (percustomer’s standard)
3.2.13.     Base

3.3.         Manpower Requirement
3.3.1.            Direct operator: 8 person
3.3.2.            Indirect operator: 2 person 

3.4.         Machinery & Equipment
The plant is composed of following machines:
Main machines -- per machine list as attached (according to customer’s request becasue CFL-double type machinery is different from CFL-triple type’s) 

Top Fusion Machine


Washing & Coating Machine


Baking Machine


End Sealing Machine


1st Stem Machine




2nd Stem Machine


Mounting Machine


1st Sealing Machine


2nd Sealing Machine


Fusion Machine


Exhaust Machine


Aging Machine


Flare Machine


Color of equipment
Color of equipment can be designated by buyer. Buyer shall supply his color sample. 



Equipment original color


safety cover


gas piping


air piping


high pressure air


low pressure air


clean air




argon gas


nitrogen gas





light blue


heat-proof silver

control box (outer)

light blue

control box (inner)


operation box and middle box

light blue

cable slot


commercial parts


The others parts shall be handle by black dyeing treatment.

3.5.         Inspection & testing equipment
3.5.1.     Trial test:After confirming the following items, the equipment shall be delivered.
3.5.2.     Machine instruction book and test record
3.5.3.     Movement of machine:Confirm movement of the equipment per following items:     confirm the running speed of the equipment      tube loading and unloading devices
Quantity and variety of the devices will be negotiated by both parties.
3.5.4.     Heating running test without any materials
Confirm the equipment without any abnormal matters after running one hour constantly
3.5.5.      Acceptance
After delivery and adjustment, acceptance will be made      Confirm machine instruction book and conference records      Confirm the equipment without any abnormal matters after hot running one hour without any materials       trial-produce
-      Range of trial operation
washing and coating machine~aging machine
-      Variety of trial operation
-      Mercury and amalgam each one
type of tube for trial operation will be negotiated by both parties
-      Checking period:two hours constantly run (2,000pcs)

good lamps rate  =  quantity of good lamp  x 100≧80%   

input lamps
-      Input quantity is equal to input tubes at washing and coating machine.
Bad tubes which are created by bad materials, fluorescent powder liquid problems and skills of buyer’s operators will be deducted from the input quantity.
3.5.6.       definition of good tubes
shape and size of tubes are meet the request of drawings of instruction book tubes which can be lighted by aging machine and tubes which can not be lighted by aging machine but can lighted by tesla coil (tubes’ life, lumen, know how...etc. will not be included)
3.5.7.      parts for producing different size of tubes
The equipment is used for producing some different size of tubes. Buyer can choose only one size of tube for test. The parts which are used for producing the rest size of tubes will be confirmed only. There is not any test will be made for the tubes.
3.5.8.      Others
1st fusion machine, 1st stem machine, 2nd stem machine, mounting machine, washing and coating machine, end cleaning machine and baking machine will be made hot running test separately only. The test result of above machines will up to the standard.

3.6.         Utilities
3.6.1.      Natural gas
Calorie...8,700Kcal/Nm3±1% max.
Necessary pressure 3000mmAq±30mmAq (at the inlet on machine)
3.6.2.       Low pressure air (oil-less, dry and clean air)
Necessary pressure...2,500mmAq ±50mmAq (at the inlet on machine)
Allowable foreign materials contained:
-           oil...less than 1PPM
-           humidity...Pressure dew point below 5℃
-           dust...less than 20μ
3.6.3.      Oxygen
Necessary pressure... 2.0Kg/cm2±0.1Kg/cm2 (at the inlet on machine)
Purity... 99.99%
Allowable foreign materials contained:
Water ...less than 10PPM
3.6.4.      High pressure air (oil-less, dry air)
Necessary pressure...5~7 Kg/cm2 (at the inlet on machine)
Allowable foreign materials contained:
-           oil...less than 30mmg/m3
-           water...Pressure dew point below 5℃
-           dust...less than 20μ
3.6.5.      Clean air(oil-less, dry, clean air)
Necessary pressure... 5~7 Kg/cm2 (at the inlet on machine)
-           oil...less than 1PPM
-           water...Pressure dew point below 5℃
-           dust...less than 10μ
3.6.6.      Argon gas
Necessary pressure...2.0 Kg/cm2 ±0.1Kg/cm2 (at the inlet on machine)
Purity... more than99.999%
3.6.7.      Nitrogen
Necessary pressure...2.0 Kg/cm2 ±0.1Kg/cm2(at the inlet on machine)
-       Purity...more than 99.999%
-       Oxygen contained should be less than 10 PPM
3.6.8.      Water
Necessary pressure... 2 ~3 Kg/cm2 (at the inlet on machine)
-       Temperature... around 20℃
-       Component of water shall be negotiated.
3.6.9.   Power    Input power
                 AC 220/380V±2.5% max., 60/50Hz, 3 phase, 3 wires    Control circuit
DC24V (reduce pressure of transformer for control box )

3.7.         Plant site planning

There are no rigid restrictions regarding the location of the plant site, but the plant will operate more successfully if the following conditions are considered:
(1) Convenient transportation
(2) Abundant suppliers of labor and materials 

3.8.         Area of land and building


6m x 5m


8m x 8m

Factory Building

40m x 12m



3.9.         Plant Layout



4.   Supplier Information
Federal Machinery Co., Ltd.
231 Niu Pu Road, Hsin Chu, Taiwan (300)
Tel.: 886-3-538-5132
Fax: 886-3-538-5288
URL: http://www.fedmachine.com
E-mail: webmaster@fedmachine.com


Sponsored by the Bureau of Foreign Trade (BOFT)   Administered by the Taiwan External Trade Development Council (TAITRA)
333 Keelung Rd., Section 1, 5-7 Fl., Taipei 11003, Taiwan ROC
Tel: +886 (2) 2725-5200     Fax: +886 (2) 2757-6245     E-mail: taitra@taitra.org.tw
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